Carrying out clever manipulation of strings
As strings are often made up of written text, there are many instances when we may want to have greater control over how strings look to make them more readable for humans through punctuation, line breaks, and indentation.
In this tutorial, we’ll go over some of the ways we can work with Python strings to make sure that all output text is formatted correctly.
Like the list data type that has items that correspond to an index number, each of a string’s characters also correspond to an index number, starting with the index number 0.
For the string Sammy Shark! the index breakdown looks like this:
As you can see, the first S starts at index 0, and the string ends at index 11 with the ! symbol.
We also notice that the whitespace character between Sammy and Shark also corresponds with its own index number. In this case, the index number associated with the whitespace is 5.
The exclamation point (!) also has an index number associated with it. Any other symbol or punctuation mark, such as *#$&.;?, is also a character and would be associated with its own index number.
The fact that each character in a Python string has a corresponding index number allows us to access and manipulate strings in the same ways we can with other sequential data types.
By referencing index numbers, we can isolate one of the characters in a string. We do this by putting the index numbers in square brackets. Let’s declare a string, print it, and call the index number in square brackets:
ss = "Sammy Shark!" print(ss)
When we refer to a particular index number of a string, Python returns the character that is in that position. Since the letter y is at index number 4 of the string ss = "Sammy Shark!", when we print ss we receive y as the output.
Index numbers allow us to access specific characters within a string.
If we have a long string and we want to pinpoint an item towards the end, we can also count backwards from the end of the string, starting at the index number -1.
For the same string Sammy Shark! the negative index breakdown looks like this:
By using negative index numbers, we can print out the character r, by referring to its position at the -3 index, like so:
Using negative index numbers can be advantageous for isolating a single character towards the end of a long string.
We can also call out a range of characters from the string. Say we would like to just print the word Shark. We can do so by creating a slice, which is a sequence of characters within an original string. With slices, we can call multiple character values by creating a range of index numbers separated by a colon [x:y]:
When constructing a slice, as in [6:11], the first index number is where the slice starts (inclusive), and the second index number is where the slice ends (exclusive), which is why in our example above the range has to be the index number that would occur just after the string ends.
When slicing strings, we are creating a substring, which is essentially a string that exists within another string. When we call ss[6:11], we are calling the substring Shark that exists within the string Sammy Shark!.
If we want to include either end of a string, we can omit one of the numbers in the string[n:n] syntax. For example, if we want to print the first word of string ss — “Sammy” — we can do so by typing:
We did this by omitting the index number before the colon in the slice syntax, and only including the index number after the colon, which refers to the end of the substring.
To print a substring that starts in the middle of a string and prints to the end, we can do so by including only the index number before the colon, like so:
By including only the index number before the colon and leaving the second index number out of the syntax, the substring will go from the character of the index number called to the end of the string.
You can also use negative index numbers to slice a string. As we went through before, negative index numbers of a string start at -1, and count down from there until we reach the beginning of the string. When using negative index numbers, we’ll start with the lower number first as it occurs earlier in the string.
Let’s use two negative index numbers to slice the string ss:
The substring “ark” is printed from the string “Sammy Shark!” because the character “a” occurs at the -4 index number position, and the character “k” occurs just before the -1 index number position.
String slicing can accept a third parameter in addition to two index numbers. The third parameter specifies the stride, which refers to how many characters to move forward after the first character is retrieved from the string. So far, we have omitted the stride parameter, and Python defaults to the stride of 1, so that every character between two index numbers is retrieved.
Let’s look again at the example above that prints out the substring “Shark”:
We can obtain the same results by including a third parameter with a stride of 1:
So, a stride of 1 will take in every character between two index numbers of a slice. If we omit the stride parameter then Python will default with 1.
If, instead, we increase the stride, we will see that characters are skipped:
Specifying the stride of 2 as the last parameter in the Python syntax ss[0:12:2] skips every other character. Let’s look at the characters that are printed in red:
Note that the whitespace character at index number 5 is also skipped with a stride of 2 specified.
If we use a larger number for our stride parameter, we will have a significantly smaller substring:
Specifying the stride of 4 as the last parameter in the Python syntax ss[0:12:4] prints only every fourth character. Again, let’s look at the characters that are printed in red:
In this example the whitespace character is skipped as well.
Since we are printing the whole string we can omit the two index numbers and keep the two colons within the syntax to achieve the same result:
Omitting the two index numbers and retaining colons will keep the whole string within range, while adding a final parameter for stride will specify the number of characters to skip.
Additionally, you can indicate a negative numeric value for the stride, which we can use to print the original string in reverse order if we set the stride to -1:
The two colons without specified parameter will include all the characters from the original string, a stride of 1 will include every character without skipping, and negating that stride will reverse the order of the characters.
Let’s do this again but with a stride of -2:
In this example, ss[::-2], we are dealing with the entirety of the original string as no index numbers are included in the parameters, and reversing the string through the negative stride. Additionally, by having a stride of -2 we are skipping every other letter of the reversed string:
The whitespace character is printed in this example.
By specifying the third parameter of the Python slice syntax, you are indicating the stride of the substring that you are pulling from the original string.
Write a program that selects the 3rd character from your name using Indexing.
Write a program that displays the 3rd-5th letters of your name using Slicing.
Write a program that displays the odd characters from your name using a stride pattern.
Thanks [name] from [whichclass][location], Mr McG will get your message…"
[message]"…and will get back to you ASAP via [email]. Catch you soon.
Have a great day!!
K McGuinness - 2018
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